Электробусы. Что мы знаем о транспорте с батарейкой?

После появления первого электротранспорта в XIX веке и второго всплеска популярности в 70-х годах XX века в наше время электробусы вновь вышли на улицы городов. О том, что повлияло на их развитие и как изменились технологии: от создания ёмких аккумуляторов до развития зарядной инфраструктуры - можно узнать в этой статье.

Первый электротранспорт: привет из XIX века

Электромобили появились задолго до машин с двигателем внутреннего сгорания. Готтлиб Даймлер и Карл Бенц запатентовали первые самодвижущиеся повозки с бензиновым ДВС в 1886 году, а первый электромобиль для перевозки людей был представлен в 1837 году. Из-за высокой стоимости и низкой эффективности первые электромобили не могли тягаться с машинами с паровым двигателем. Стоимость обслуживания авто с цинковым аккумулятором в 40 раз превышала цену обслуживания паровой машины на угле.

Электробус Уильяма Моррисона

Электробус Уильяма Моррисона

После появления доступных свинцово-кислотных аккумуляторов электромобили успели ненадолго войти в моду. В 1890 году американец Уильям Моррисон построил первый электробус — автомобиль вместимостью 6 человек, развивающий скорость до 19 км/ч и проезжающий на одном заряде до 160 км. 24 батареи, весившие в сумме почти 350 кг, выдавали ток 112 А с напряжением 58 В и требовали для полной перезарядки 10 часов.

Лондонский электробус

Лондонский электробус со съемной батареей — прообраз будущей Tesla с быстросъемными аккумуляторами

В самом начале XX века в Лондоне на маршрутах городского транспорта успешно работали 20 электробусов, на то время более эффективные и экономичные, чем их бензиновые аналоги. Одного заряда аккумулятора хватало на 60 км пути, поэтому на конечных станциях опустевшие батареи заменяли на новые — процесс занимал всего три минуты.

К 1900 году 38% автомобилей в США работали на электричестве, но совершенствование двигателей внутреннего сгорания и снижение цен на топливо резко затормозило развитие отрасли автономного электротранспорта — уже к 30-м годам XX века электробусы практически исчезли. В отличие от бензиновых машин, электротранспорт не дешевел, а состояние экологии пока никому не внушало опасений. Крест на инвестициях в автобусы с аккумуляторами поставило появление в 20-х годах дешевых троллейбусов.

Электробус. Замена аккумулятора

Процесс замены аккумулятора в электробусе — полная автоматика, как в XXI веке.

Но из-за низких цен на топливо в середине XX века индустрия ДВС пошла по пути наращивания объема, что напрямую сказывалось на расходе бензина. Даже легковые автомобили снабжались неэкономичными шестилитровыми двигателями, обслуживание которых в 70-х стало буквально «золотым». Сложившаяся ситуация вызвала новый всплеск популярности электромобилей. Так в английском Манчестере в 1974 году на городские маршруты вышли электробусы Seddon Pennine 4-236 на хлоридных аккумуляторах.

Электробус 1975

Редкий кадр действующего в 1975 году электробуса Seddon Pennine 4-236

Единственный универсальный коммерческий автомобиль, оставшийся на память о том времени — минивэн Mercedes-Benz LE 306, чей быстросъемный аккумулятор обеспечивал мощность около 76 лошадиных сил, но истощался уже через 50 км пути. Автомобиль прожил до 1983 года, после испытаний почтовой службой немецкого города Бонна он был признан нерентабельным.

Электрический минивэн Mercedes-Benz LE 306

Электрический минивэн Mercedes-Benz LE 306 — напоминание об эпохе топливного кризиса

Серьезно о массовом производстве и использовании электротранспорта заговорили лишь в XX веке, когда общество стало задумываться об экологических угрозах и осознавать, какой вред окружающей среде наносят выхлопные газы автомобилей. На фоне обсуждения экологических проблем идея перевода дизельных автобусов на электричество стала довольно популярной, и немалую роль в этом сыграло появление литий-ионных батарей, способных накапливать энергию и обеспечивать автономное движение электробусов в течение длительного времени. Изобретение таких батарей решило и экономическую проблему, сделав производство и обслуживание электротранспорта более экономичным и открыв ему дорогу на массовый рынок.

Вопросы питания

В современных электробусах для питания используются аккумуляторы или суперконденсаторы. Последний способ хранения энергии по-своему интересен, хотя и сильно ограничивает возможности электротранспорта.

Суперконденсаторы могут хранить всего 5% энергии в сравнении с литий-ионными батареями схожего объема. Очевидно, что на одном заряде конденсатора автобус проедет всего несколько километров, а значит о какой-либо автономности говорить не приходится. Но позитивное свойство конденсаторов — скорость зарядки. На восстановление заряда уходят секунды.

Китайский суперконденсаторный Ultracap Bus

Китайский суперконденсаторный Ultracap Bus на остановке с зарядной станцией — выглядит, как участок с троллейбусными проводами

Так в китайском городе Нинбо действует конденсаторный электробус, которому для подзарядки хватает всего 10 секунд — благодаря развитой инфраструктуре зарядных станций, автобус получает энергию на каждой остановке во время высадки-посадки пассажиров, которая обычно длится немного дольше. Кроме того, до 80% энергии торможения преобразуется в электричество и возвращается обратно в конденсаторы — это дает экономию до 50%.

Суперконденсаторы постоянно совершенствуются, но внедрение электробусов на таких элементах питания требует очень дорогостоящей инфраструктуры в виде зарядных станций высокой мощности на каждой остановке. Кроме того, внештатные ситуации в виде неожиданных пробок могут оставить автобус с разряженными конденсаторами на дороге и создать дополнительные проблемы для дорожного трафика.

Литий-ионный аккумулятор — это не какой-то конкретный вид батарей с единственным утвержденным составом, а целое семейство энергетических элементов. Разработка литий-ионных аккумуляторов представляет собой сложный процесс поиска необходимого баланса между мощностью, ёмкостью, компактностью и ценой. Идеала пока не существует. Каждый тип литий-ионной батареи хорош для конкретной сферы применения. Далеко не все они используются в электротранспорте, многие находят свое место в электронике с небольшим энергопотреблением.

Аккумуляторы на оксиде лития-кобальта (LiCoO2), — самые доступные и популярные на сегодняшний день, — имеют отличную ёмкость на единицу объема, низкую стоимость и напряжение 3,6В на ячейку. Именно такую батарею вы найдете в мобильных устройствах и портативной потребительской электронике. Минусы таких аккумуляторов тоже известны: малый ток разряда, максимум 1000 циклов зарядки/разрядки до начала серьезной деградации ёмкости, долгая зарядка и невозможность работы при отрицательных температурах. Электробус на LiCoO2 обойдется дешевле, чем на других типах аккумуляторов, но сможет работать только в теплых странах на коротких маршрутах с минимальной загрузкой, вроде трансферов внутри кампусов.

NMC-аккумулятор Nissan Leaf

NMC-аккумулятор Nissan Leaf стоит вдвое дешевле NCA-батареи Tesla, но и ёмкость теряет примерно вдвое быстрей (70% после 100 тыс. км)

Литий-марганцевый аккумулятор (LiMn2O4) благодаря трехмерной структуре смог обеспечить высокий ток разряда — до 30 раз превышающим его ёмкость. Это дало возможность использовать LiMn2O4 в устройствах с краткосрочным высоким энергопотреблением, например, в электромобилях Nissan Leaf и BMW i3. Но у литий-марганцевых аккумуляторов обнаружились свои недостатки: еще меньший, чем у литий-кобальтовых батарей жизненный ресурс и нетерпимость к холоду. Поэтому литий-марганцевые батареи комбинируют с другим типом аккумуляторов — NMC.

Литий-никель-марганец-кобальт-оксидные батареи, или просто NMC, получили неплохую удельную энергоёмкость и срок службы (до 2000 циклов разрядки), но ток отдачи у них оказался невелик. Именно поэтому для использования в электромобилях NMC комбинируют с LiMn2O4 — при обычной езде в основном работают NMC-ячейки, а при ускорении высокий ток отдают ячейки LiMn2O4.

540-килограммовая NCA-батарея Tesla Model S на 85 кВт

540-килограммовая NCA-батарея Tesla Model S на 85 кВт при замене из-за износа отправляется в системы хранения энергии Tesla Powerwall

Литий-никель-кобальт-алюминий-оксидные батареи (LiNiCoAlO2, или NCA) отличаются высокой удельной ёмкостью и приемлемой стоимостью. Скорость зарядки и ток разрядки у NCA-аккумуляторов средние, их нельзя записать в достоинства или недостатки. Именно NCA стали источником энергии для автомобилей Tesla и систем хранения Powerwall.

Но одна особенность NCA-батарей бросила тень на Tesla еще до того, как владельцы могли столкнуться с потенциальными проблемами — аккумуляторы имеют сравнимые с литий-кобальтными ячейками срок службы в 500 циклов. А дальше замена и утилизация изношенных элементов. Реальный опыт показал, что даже спустя 200 тысяч километров батареи в электромобилях Tesla остаются рабочими, теряя треть ёмкости. Но, несмотря на этот положительный опыт, для городского электротранспорта NCA-аккумуляторы не являются лучшим выбором, ведь пробег автобусов в разы и даже на порядки превышает пробег личных авто.

Литий-титанатный ответ

Литий-титанатные аккумуляторы (Li4Ti5O12, LTO) известны еще с 80-х годов прошлого века. Toshiba активно разрабатывает и производит этот тип батарей под названием SCiB (Super Charge Ion Battery). Для изготовления анода в них используется литий-титанат вместо графита. При этом катод может быть заимствован у NMC-батарей. Замена графита позволила увеличить эффективную площадь анода с 3 м2/г до 100 м2/г, что в лучшую сторону влияет на скорость зарядки ячейки и ток разряда. Так в 2017 году Toshiba продемонстрировала SCiB-батарею, способную восстановить до 90% своей ёмкости всего за 5 минут.

Пористая структура литий-титанатного оксида

Пористая структура литий-титанатного оксида обеспечивает в 30 раз большую площадь, чем графит, и в разы больший срок службы

Литий-титанатные батареи стабильно отдают ток в десять раз превышающий их ёмкость, и в тридцать раз при импульсных нагрузках. Ранние образцы выдерживали до 7000 циклов разрядки, а современные аккумуляторы обеспечивают 15000-20000 циклов — с этими показателями не сравнится ни один другой тип литий-ионных батарей. Кроме того, LTO-батареи пожаробезопасны, при разгерметизации они нагревают до 70 градусов и остывают, перегрев им также не страшен. На холоде элемент почти не теряет эффективность — при температуре -30 градусов ёмкость литий-титанатной ячейки понижается до 80% от номинала.

Литий-титанатная батарея Toshiba

Литий-титанатная батарея Toshiba, используемая в автобусах Proterra

Невероятная живучесть, мгновенная зарядка, стойкость к холодам. Звучит, как идеальный аккумулятор для телефона. Но есть у LTO-батарей и свои недостатки, которые пока ограничивают круг их применения. В первую очередь, это низкая удельная ёмкость 50-80 Вт/кг, тогда как у традиционных литий-кобальтовых элементов она равна 150-200 Вт/кг — то есть, для получения равной ёмкости литий-титанатная ячейка должна быть вдвое-втрое объемней. Во-вторых, номинальное напряжение ячейки равно всего 2,4 В против 3,6 В у литий-кобальтовых. В-третьих, пока литий-титанатные батареи отличаются высокой ценой, втрое большей, чем у NCA-батарей. Именно поэтому встроить литий-титанатный аккумулятор в смартфон пока невозможно — получится дорогой элемент с низкой ёмкостью и недостаточным для работы устройства напряжением.

пробег тестовой машины на SCiB и литий-кобальт-оксидных батареях

На графике показан пробег тестовой машины на SCiB и литий-кобальт-оксидных батареях. Преимущество SCiB более чем очевидно

Зато в электробусах, где нет дефицита места, а также требуется высокий ресурс батареи, литий-титанатным аккумуляторам самое место.

Вопрос подзарядки

Без развитой инфраструктуры электробус превращается в проблему. Заряжать электробус можно тремя разными способами: долгой ночной зарядкой, быстрой зарядкой на конечных станциях и экспресс-зарядкой на остановках.

Зарядные станции на остановках общественного транспорта требуются, например, электробусам на суперконденсаторах: над павильоном устанавливается контактная площадка или провода, которых автобус касается пантографом. Если суперконденсаторам хватает питания в течение нескольких секунд, то для подзарядки аккумулятора нужны хотя бы минуты. Учитывая, что современные литий-титанатные батареи Toshiba восстанавливают большую часть заряда за пять минут, на маршрутную сеть электробуса достаточно установить всего несколько зарядных станций, которые смогут поддерживать аккумуляторы автобуса заряженными.

Серийный электробус КамАЗ

Серийный электробус КамАЗ заряжается на конечной остановке московского маршрута №73

Долгая ночная зарядка в общественном транспорте используется только в паре с одним из двух других способов. Заряжать автобус всего раз в сутки и отправлять его на маршрут на весь день невозможно по объективным причинам. Во-первых, для работы в течение хотя бы половины дня нужны очень ёмкие аккумуляторы, которые займут много места в салоне — это обстоятельство резко удорожает стоимость каждого автобуса. Во-вторых, к автобусному парку необходимо подводить очень мощные линии электроснабжения, чтобы одновременно питать десятки и даже сотни автобусов.

А что дальше?

Городской электротранспорт всегда считался сомнительной экзотикой, а сейчас в мире работают сотни тысяч электробусов. Чемпионом по адаптации новых технологий является Китай, где находятся почти 99% существующих в мире электрических автобусов. По оценкам Bloomberg New Energy Finance, к 2025 году 47% автобусов в мире будут электрическими.

Россия тоже не отстает от мировых тенденций. Ежегодно многие российские города закупают электротранспорт и выводят его на постоянные маршруты, создается специальная инфраструктура и предлагаются решения в области энергообеспечения. Не исключено, что переход на электротранспорт затянется на десятилетия и, возможно, мы застанем время, когда личные электромобили перестанут быть предметом роскоши и составят достойную конкуренцию дизельным аналогам.

ИСТОЧНИК: HABR

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