Подключение ионисторов к устройствам сбора энергии

Сфера применения миниатюрных беспроводных датчиков постоянно расширяется. Они используются для контроля состояния сооружений, управления производственными процессами, в системах безопасности и в устройствах радиочастотной идентификации. Намного удобнее и экономически эффективнее питать такие датчики автономно с помощью небольших устройств сбора энергии, не нуждающихся в дорогих кабелях или требующих периодической замены аккумуляторах.

Окружающая среда может служить источником бесконечного количества энергии самых разнообразных форм, включая пьезоэлектрическую, тепловую, фотогальваническую и энергию вибрации, однако мощность ее весьма мала и крайне далека от пиковой потребности передатчиков беспроводных сетей, таких как IEEE 802.15.4 (Zigbee), 802.11 (WLAN), или GSM/GPRS. Чтобы обеспечить датчик достаточной мощностью для каждого цикла измерений и передачи данных, энергию необходимо накапливать в буфере, в качестве которого удобнее всего использовать ионисторы. Такие устройства накопления энергии медленно заряжаются от маломощного источника и кратковременно отдают большую мощность, когда это необходимо.

Модель идеального ионистора

Модель идеального ионистора: последовательное соединение конденсатора емкостью C и резистора с сопротивлением ESR.

Определение необходимой емкости ионистора

Типичное рабочее напряжение ионисторных элементов лежит в диапазоне от 2.3 до 2.8 В. Оптимальная стратегия, позволяющая эффективно и с минимальными издержками запасать необходимую для приложения энергию, реализуется ограничением напряжения заряда до уровня, несколько меньшего, чем допустимое напряжение ионистора.
Простой способ определения необходимой емкости ионистора заключается в том, чтобы рассчитать количество энергии, необходимое для обеспечения устройства достаточной мощностью P в периоды максимального потребления, и приравнять его к выражению:

где:
C – емкость ионистора(в фарадах),
VINITIAL – напряжение на ионисторе непосредственно перед началом периода пикового потребления,
VFINAL – напряжение на ионисторе в конце этого периода.

Однако последнее выражение не учитывает потерь, обусловленных наличием паразитного внутреннего сопротивления ионистора – ESR (equivalent series resistance), снижающего напряжение на нагрузке:

VINITIAL — ESR ILOAD ,  где ILOAD – ток нагрузки.

Поскольку напряжение на нагрузке уменьшается, ток нагрузки для поддержания расчетного уровня мощности увеличивается. Руководствуясь вышеприведенным рисунком, разработчики могут описать разряд ионистора следующими выражениями:


где:
VSCAP – напряжение на ионисторе.

Из приведенных выражений вытекает уравнение для тока нагрузки:

Затем разряд ионистора может быть легко смоделирован в Excel на основании формул:



и

Этот расчет исключительно важен, особенно, если произведение тока нагрузки на ESR достаточно велико в сравнении с напряжением на ионисторе в конце цикла разряда. В этом случае простая оценка энергетического баланса может показать, что емкость ионистора слишком мала, причем с понижением рабочей температуры нехватка емкости будет проявляться сильнее, так как при низких температурах ESR становится в два-три раза больше, чем при комнатной температуре.

Необходимо также помнить, что емкость и ESR ионистора изменяются со временем вследствие старения. Емкость постепенно падает, а внутреннее сопротивление возрастает. Скорость старения зависит от напряжения на элементе и температуры. Разработчикам следует учитывать это, выбирая ионистор с запасом по обоим параметрам, исходя из расчетного срока службы датчика.

САПР Электрон — представитель компании VINATech в Санкт-Петербурге, одним из мировых лидеров по выпуску суперконденсаторов (ионисторов), единственная компания в мире, выпускаящая ионисторы с напряжением 3В, в классах от 1F до 3000F. Мы работаем как с крупными партиями товара, так и с небольшими сериями и единичными образцами.

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