Суперконденсаторы на транспорте и в электронике

Основным видом устройств для хранения электрической энергии в настоящее время являются аккумуляторы. Однако существует еще один интересный вид устройств - суперконденсаторы или ионисторы. В отличие от батарей, принимающих и вырабатывающих электроэнергию за счет химических реакций между электродами, они ничего не вырабатывают, а запасают и отдают заряд в готовом виде.

Обычный конденсатор, как правило, имеет емкость от нескольких пико- (триллионных долей) до единиц милли- (тысячных долей) фарад. Энергоемкость такого заряда ничтожна в сравнении с аккумуляторами. У ионисторов эта величина на порядки больше. В продаже можно встретить суперконденсаторы, способные накапливать заряд в 5000 фарад (5 кФ). Это немало, примерно 18.2 кДж или 5.15 Втч, что сравнимо с емкостью литиевых ячеек.

Плюсы суперконденсаторов

В сравнении с аккумуляторами, у суперконденсаторов имеется целый ряд преимуществ. В первую очередь, это скорость зарядки. Литиевые батареи не очень хорошо переносят высокие токи зарядки. Уже при скорости зарядки 1 А/ч они перегреваются и могут даже взорваться. Суперконденсатор может заряжаться очень быстро. Нередко на практике скорость процесса ограничена возможностями источника (розетки) и кабелей, по которым течет ток.

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Второе преимущество — в долговечности. Литиевые ячейки демонстрируют срок службы порядка 1000 циклов заряда/разряда без существенной потери емкости. Суперконденсатор способен пережить и 10, и 100 тысяч, и даже миллион циклов без последствий.

И третье важное преимущество — суперконденсаторы не боятся больших перепадов температур, отлично зарекомендовали себя при работе в отрицательном диапазоне. Они менее токсичны, большинство используемых в конструкции веществ химически не так активны, как литий, а потому безопаснее.

Минусы суперконденсаторов

Первый минус суперконденсаторов – удельная емкость. Она ниже, чем у аккумуляторов. Упомянутые в начале статьи ионисторы на 5000 Фарад имеют длину 21 см, диаметр 6 см, и весят 800 грамм. Для сравнения, литиевая ячейка схожей емкости, формата 18500, имеет длину 5, диаметр 1.8 см, и весит около 30-35 грамм. Разница по объему – почти в 50 раз, по весу – около 25.

Второй минус — цена. Ценник на упомянутые суперконденсаторы на 5000 Ф доходит до $100, что при емкости 5 Втч дает удельную стоимость $20/Втч. При том, что удельная стоимость емкости литиевых батарей уже опустилась ниже $200/кВтч или $0.2/Втч. Разница – в 100 раз. То есть, если батарея современного электромобиля на литиевых элементах стоит $10 тыс., то при использовании ионисторов – подорожает до миллиона. Кроме того, она будет в 50 раз больше и в 25 раз – тяжелее.
Сборки суперконденсаторов
Можно использовать сборки конденсаторов меньшей емкости (например, 500 Ф), и тогда цена упадет на порядок-два. То есть, сравнится с литиевыми источниками питания. Но в этом случае объем и масса сборки окажутся столь большими, что ни в какой автомобиль такая батарея, имеющая хотя бы 100 кВтч емкости, не влезет.

Третий ключевой минус – зависимость напряжения на суперконденсаторе от остаточного заряда. У литиевых батарей по мере разрядки напряжение падает примерно от 4.2 до 3 вольт. Ионистор же разряжается до нуля и для получения стабильного напряжения требуется повышающий преобразователь-стабилизатор, который занимает место и приводит к потерям части энергии.

Кажется, что при таких недостатках у ионисторов нет никакого шанса стать заменой аккумуляторам. Ведь смартфон или ноутбук с дорогой батареей, весящей несколько килограмм, никому не нужен, а в авто суперконденсаторы вообще не поместить. Но не все так печально…

Перспективы для суперконденсаторов

Несмотря на все имеющиеся недостатки, не позволяющие использовать ионисторы для питания автомобилей или портативной электроники, у них есть право на жизнь. Конечно, ни автомобиля, способного проехать сотни километров, ни смартфона, заражающегося за 5 минут и работающего неделю, сделать с ними не получится. Но если взглянуть шире, есть и другие сферы применения суперконденсаторов.

Ученые уже не один год проводят исследования графеновых технологий, которые позволят увеличить емкость суперконденсаторов на порядок и больше. Вряд ли это произойдет в ближайшие год или два, но когда технологию освоят, отставание от аккумуляторов уже не будет столь существенным.

Да, суперконденсаторы не заменят литий, потому что аккумуляторы тоже прогрессируют, а ионисторы вряд ли станут на пару порядков вместительнее в обозримом будущем. Но они способны выполнять роль буферного источника питания, а также могут использоваться в городском транспорте. Подобные решения уже разрабатываются и выпускаются.

Белорусский «Белкоммунмаш» в 2017 представил электробус АКСМ-Е433 Vitovt, оборудованный ионисторами. Он способен пройти на одном заряде 12 км, а время полной зарядки батареи из суперконденсаторов составляет 7 минут. Учитывая, что городской автобус останавливается через каждые несколько сотен метров, а его маршрут редко превышает пару десятков километров – можно заряжать его на конечных остановках (белорусы так и сделали).

Автобус на суперконденсаторах Белкоммунмаш

Батарея АКСМ-Е433 весит около 1,5 тонн, что много по меркам авто. Но если ученые добьются повышения емкости ионисторов на порядок, то аналогичная сборка ионисторов сможет проехать не 12, а 120 км, или же иметь прежнюю дальность, но при массе до 150 кг. Это откроет перспективы перед электрическим внутригородским и междугородным транспортом ближнего сообщения, а также электромобилями для города.

Появление суперконденсаторов с большей удельной емкостью скажется позитивно и на электронике. В ноутбук или смартфон такой ионистор, все равно, вряд ли поместится, но в роли буферного накопителя энергии (внешнего аккумулятора) ионистор сгодится. Можно будет перед выходом из дома за зарядить его за минуту, положить в сумку, и уже в пути передать энергию носимому электронному устройству.

Безусловно, в нынешнем виде ионистор – весьма узкоспециализированное устройство, которое имеет ограниченное применение. Пока что суперконденсаторы можно использовать только там, где надежность, долговечность и скорость зарядки гораздо важнее автономности и цены. Городской автобус – как раз такой случай. Но если ученым удастся воплотить в реальность свои планы, а промышленность сможет наладить массовый выпуск суперконденсаторов по новым технологиям, нас ждет серьезное соперничество на рынке накопителей энергии.

Даже если ионисторы и не смогут вытеснить химические источники, превзойдя их по параметрам (или хотя бы сравнившись по удельной емкости), в некоторых сферах они составят существенную конкуренцию: на транспорте, и в области портативной электроники.

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